Chapter 28   THE ONSET OF THE COLD WAR
 
The Cold War Begins: Issues Dividing U.S., U.S.S.R
•Control of postwar Europe
•Economic aid
•Nuclear disarmament
 
The Division of Europe
•1945: Russians occupied eastern Europe,  American troops occupied western Europe
•Soviet Union sought eastern European buffer
•U.S. demanded national self-determination through free elections throughout Europe
•Stalin converted eastern Europe into a system of satellite nations 
 
Europe after World War II
 
 
Withholding Economic Aid
•Russia devastated by World War II
•Some Americans sought to influence Russia with Lend-Lease economic aid
•1945: United States halted Lend-Lease without Russian settlement
•Leverage lost in shaping Soviet policy
 
The Atomic Dilemma
•1943: Nuclear race between U.S. and U.S.S.R.
•1946: Baruch Plan
–Rapid reduction of U.S. military force
–Gradual reduction favored U.S. atomic monopoly
•Soviet Union
–Larger conventional army than U.S.
–Immediate abolition of atomic weapons
 
Containment
•1947: George C. Marshall appointed Secretary of State
•Dean Acheson:  England's former role as arbiter of world affairs
•George Kennan: Called for “containment of Russia’s expansive tendencies”
 
The Truman Doctrine
•1947: Truman sought funds to keep Greece, Turkey in Western sphere of influence
•Truman Doctrine:  “Support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressure”
•Doctrine an informal declaration of cold war against the Soviet Union
 
The Marshall Plan
•1947: George Marshall proposed aid for rebuilding European industries
•Russia refused aid
•1948: Marshall Plan adopted by Congress
•Plan fostered western European prosperity
 
Marshall Plan to Aid Europe, 1948–1952
 
 
The Western Military Alliance
•1949: North Atlantic Treaty Organization
–Military alliance included U.S., Canada, most of western Europe
–U.S. troops stationed in Europe
•NATO intensified Russia's fear of the West
 
The Berlin Blockade
•June, 1948: Russians blockade of Berlin
•Truman ordered airlift to supply the city
•1949: Russians end blockade
•U.S. political victory dramatized division
 
The Cold War Expands
•1947: U.S.-Russian arms race accelerated
•Conflict expanded to Asia
 
The Military Dimension
•1947: National Security Act
–Department of Defense unified armed forces
–Central Intelligence Agency coordinated intelligence-gathering
–National Security Council advised president
•Defense budget devoted to air power
•1949: First Russian atomic bomb exploded, U.S. began hydrogen bomb development
 
The Cold War in Asia
•1945: U.S. consolidates hold on Japan, former Japanese possessions in Pacific
•1949: Victory of Mao Tse-tung brings China into Soviet orbit
•Truman refused recognition of Communist China, began building up Japan
 
The Korean War
•June 25, 1950: Communist North Korean forces invaded U.S.-influenced South Korea
•Truman made South Korea’s defense a U.N. effort, sent in U.S. troops
–U.S. routed Korean forces in South
–Attempt to unify Korea drew in China
–U.S. pushed back to South, war a stalemate
•Result: Massive American rearmament
 
The Korean War, 1950–1953
 
 
The Cold War at Home
•New Deal economic policies undermined
•Fears of Communist subversion
•Republicans used anticommunism to revive their party
 
Truman's Troubles
•Obstacles to Truman’s Fair Deal reforms
–Apathetic public
–Inflation
–Labor unrest
•1946: Republicans won Congress
 
Truman Vindicated
•Taft-Hartley Act outlawed certain union tactics
–Truman vetoed, Republicans overrode his veto
•1948 election:  Truman thought unelectable
–Northern liberals supported Henry Wallace’s Progressive candidacy
–Southern Democrats supported “Dixiecrat” Strom Thurmond
–Republican Thomas Dewey overconfident and ran bland campaign, failed to challenge Truman on Cold War because of the Berlin Crisis
–Roosevelt coalition reelected Truman on domestic issues
 
Election of 1948
 
 
The Loyalty Issue
•House Un-American Activities Committee investigated Communist subversion in government
•Truman responded with loyalty program
•Alger Hiss case
•Democrats blamed for
–”Losing" China to Communism
–Russia's development of a hydrogen bomb
 
McCarthyism in Action
•1950: Senator Joseph McCarthy launched anticommunist campaign
•Innocent overwhelmed by accusations
•Attacks on privileged bureaucrats
–Supported by Midwest Republicans
–Attracted Irish, Italian, Polish workers to Republicans
 
The Republicans in Power
•1952: Eisenhower captures White House for Republican Party
•July 27, 1953: stalemate accepted in Korea
•Eisenhower dealt passively with McCarthy
•1954: Attack on Army discredited McCarthy who is then censured
 
The Election of 1952
 
Eisenhower Wages
the Cold War
•Eisenhower prefers to work behind-the scenes
•Eisenhower wanted to relax tensions with Soviets
–Debt imposed by defense spending
–Possibility of atomic warfare
•Eisenhower “new look” policy relied on massive retaliation to deter Soviet attacks
 
Entanglement in Indochina
•Eisenhower refused military aid for French retention of colonial Indochina
•Victory of Communist Ho Chi Minh prompted intervention to prevent election
•Vietnam divided, election postponed
•South Vietnam under U.S. puppet regime
 
Containing China
•Tough line against China
•Drove wedge between China, Russia
•Strategy ultimately worked
•Effects not immediately apparent
 
Turmoil in the Middle East
•1956: Nasser nationalized Suez Canal
•France, England invaded Egypt
•Eisenhower won Middle East trust by pressuring English, French withdrawal
•1958: Lebanon invited U.S. troops to maintain order
 
Covert Actions
•Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) used to achieve covert objectives
•Iran: CIA restored the shah to power
•Guatemala: CIA ousts leftist government
•Eastern Europe: Refused to help East Germans or Hungarians
 
Waging Peace
•Nuclear test ban treaty
–U.S. and U.S.S.R. agreed to suspend  nuclear testing in the atmosphere
•October, 1957: Russians launched Sputnik
•May, 1960: U-2 incident cancelled plans for summit on new Berlin Crisis
 
The Continuing Cold War
•January, 1961: Eisenhower warned against growing military-industrial complex
•Post-war era marked by Cold War rather than peace and tranquility