Chapter 30 THE TURBULENT SIXTIES
Kennedy Intensifies the Cold War
•John F. Kennedy a "Cold Warrior"
•Kennedy advisors supported U.S. hard line against Russia
 
Flexible Response
•Arms buildup
•Conventional armed forces
•The nuclear arsenal
•Special Forces
•U.S. strength tempted new administration to challenge U.S.S.R.
 
Crisis over Berlin
•1961: Khrushchev renewed threat again to give Berlin to East Germany
•Kennedy’s response
•Announce crisis on nationwide television
•Call up the National Guard
•Soviets built Berlin Wall
 
Containment in Southeast Asia
•Kennedy saw Southeast Asia as focus of U.S.-Soviet rivalry
•Supported Saigon’s Diem regime
•Sent 16,000 American military "advisors"
•November, 1963: Coup against Diem
•Kennedy accepted
•Coup further destabilized South Vietnam
•U.S. involvement in Vietnam deepened
 
Containing Castro: The Bay of Pigs Fiasco
•Kennedy supported “anti-Castro forces in exile”
•Bay of Pigs invasion a part of 1960 CIA plan under Eisenhower
•April, 17 1961: Invasion
•1,400 Cuban exiles land without expected U.S. military support
•Defeated within 48 hours
•Kennedy took responsibility in defiant speech against “communist penetration”
 
Containing Castro: The Cuban Missile Crisis
•October, 1962: Soviet nuclear missiles confirmed in Cuba
•Planned to blockade, invade Cuba
•U.S. imposed naval blockade, world appeared to be on the brink of nuclear war
•Khrushchev agreed to remove missiles in exchange for public statement that U.S. would not invade Cuba and private assurance that U.S. Jupiter missiles in Turkey would be removed
 
Containing Castro: The Cuban Missile Crisis
•Political
•Kennedy’s popularity soared
•Democrats gained in Congressional elections
•Diplomatic effects
•Moderation of the Cold War
•Russians began naval, nuclear buildup
 
The New Frontier at Home
•Kennedy staff competent, activist
•Seeks legislative and economic reform
•JFK the administration's greatest asset
 
The Congressional Obstacle
•Congress controlled by Southern Democrat-Republican coalition
•Coalition blocked far-reaching reform
•Kennedy did not challenge Congress
 
Economic Advance
•Economic stimulation
•Increased space and defense spending
•Informal wage and price guidelines
•1962: U.S. Steel forced to lower prices
•1963: Tax cut spurred one of the longest sustained advances in U.S. history
•Kennedy's economic policies doubled growth, cut unemployment
 
Moving Slowly on Civil Rights
•Downplay civil rights legislation to avoid alienating Southern Democrats
•May, 1961: Federal marshals sent to protect Birmingham freedom riders
•1962: Federal marshals, National Guard to University of Mississippi
•1963: Deputy attorney general faced down George Wallace at University of Alabama
 
"I Have a Dream"
•May, 1963: Violent police suppression of nonviolent protestors in Birmingham
•Kennedy intervened on side of blacks
•Congress asked for civil-rights laws
•August, 1963: MLK led march on Washington
•Kennedy record disappointing to supporters, ultimately effective
 
The Supreme Court and Reform
•Defendants’ rights in criminal cases
•Gideon vs. Wainwright, Esobedo vs. Iliionois, Miranda vs. Arizona
•Legislative reapportionment of states
•1962: Baker vs. Carr establishes "one man, one vote"
•Greater social justice achieved
•Rights of the underprivileged protected
•Dissent and free expression protected
•Engle vs. Vitale banned school prayer
 
"Let Us Continue"
•November 22, 1963: JFK  assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald
•Lyndon Johnson promised to continue Kennedy's programs
•Johnson ultimately exceeded Kennedy’s record on economic, racial equality
 
Johnson in Action
•Poor image on television
•Effective manager of Congress
•Spring, 1964: Kennedy's tax cut passed
•July 2: Civil Rights Act
•Banned public segregation
•Established Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to lessen job discrimination
•Protected voting rights
•Amended to include women in an attempt to reduce support for it
 
The Election of 1964
•1964: Johnson launched “war on poverty” to
•Programs included Head Start, Job Corps, Community Action Programs
•Encouraged self-help
•Reduced poverty
•Johnson won landslide election against Republican Barry Goldwater
 
The Triumph of Reform
•1965:  Great Society legislation advanced beyond New Deal
•Medicare
•Medicaid
•Elementary and Secondary Education Act
•Voting Rights Act
 
African American Voter Registration Before and After Passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1964
 
The Second Great Migration:
A Theoretical Example
 
Johnson Escalates the Vietnam War
•Hawkish foreign policy continued
•1965: Troops sent to Dominican Republic
•Determined not to "lose" Vietnam to the Communists
 
The Vietnam Dilemma
•1964: Saigon on the verge of collapse
• Johnson’s initial response
•Refused to send American combat forces
•Economic aid
•Military advisers
•Covert actions
•August 1964: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gives Johnson authority to escalate in Vietnam
 
Southeast Asia and the Vietnam War
 
Escalation
•U.S. effort intended to bring Hanoi into peace negotiations
•Policy of secrecy and deceit to assure Americans of Vietnam’s insignificance and keep Vietnam from endangering the Great Society
•Johnson’s “sins” in Vietnam were secrecy, deceit, and the refusing to admit he had committed U.S. to dangerous conflict
 
Stalemate
•1968: 500,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam
•War of attrition increased American losses, enraged South Vietnamese
•Johnson’s tactics failed to win the war
•Americans gradually turned against the war
 
U.S. Troop Levels in Vietnam (as of Dec. 31 each year)
 
Years of Turmoil
•Exceptional unrest at home
•Continued escalation of Vietnam war
 
The Student Revolt
•1964: Student protest movement launched at Berkeley
•Challenged older generation’s materialism
•Vietnam War targeted
•Widespread cultural uprising
•Students for a Democratic Society fullest expression of student revolt
 
Protesting the Vietnam War
•October, 1967: 100,000 protesters besieged the Pentagon
•Demonstrations suppressed by a combination of force, concessions
 
The Cultural Revolution
•Rejection of older values through
•Sexual expression
•Clothing
•Drugs
•Music
•Some extremism provoked outrage
•Serious challenge to hypocrisy of American society
 
"Black Power"
•1964–1967: Riots in northern cities
•Rise of militant leaders
•Black separatism
•Armed struggle
•MLK led anti-poverty crusade
•April, 1968: MLK assassinated
•Militancy increased African American pride
 
Ethnic Nationalism
•Multiple groups emulated African American movement
•1965: César Chávez organized National Farm Workers' Association
•Chicanos won federal mandate for bilingual education
 
Women's Liberation
•1963: Friedan's The Feminine Mystique
•New feminist activism
•1964 Civil Rights Act used to attack inequality in employment
•Pro-choice advocacy on abortion
•Sought to toughen enforcement of rape laws
•1972: Congress sent Equal Rights Amendment to the states
 
The Return of Richard Nixon
•1968: A year of turmoil
•Presidential election
•Turning point in the Vietnam War
•Massive protests in the streets
•Richard Nixon election demonstrated desire for national reconciliation
 
Vietnam Undermines Lyndon Johnson
•1968: Tet Offensive led to conclusion that Vietnam war cannot be won
•March: Johnson announced he will not seek another term as president
 
The Republican Resurgence
•Republicans united on Richard Nixon
•George Wallace’s third party candidacy drew Democratic votes
•Nixon won narrow victory
 
 
 
 
The End of an Era
•Election of 1968 ended 30-year era of liberal reform, activist foreign policy
•Americans sought less intrusive government