Chapter 13    AN AGE OF EXPANSIONISM
 
 
Movement to the Far West
American settlement reaches Pacific in 1830s and 1840s
Settlement encroaches on lands claimed by Mexico and England
 
Borderlands of the 1830s
1842: Webster-Ashburton Treaty settles the northeast U.S.-Canadian boundary
Americans begin settling in
Oregon territory (joint U.S., English claim)
New Mexico territory (owned by Mexico)
California (owned by Mexico)
 
Territorial Expansion by the Mid-Nineteenth Century
 
The Texas Revolution
►1820s: Americans encouraged to move into Texas
►"Anglos" never fully accept Mexican government rules on slavery and Catholicism
►1830: Mexico bans immigration from U.S. and importing slaves
►1835: Armed rebellion breaks out after Santa Anna seems bent on using military to enforce Mexican government policy
 
The Republic of Texas
►March, 1836: Texans declare independence and the Alamo under siege
►April, 1836: Santa Anna defeated at San Jacinto
►May, 1836: Santa Anna’s treaty recognizes Texas' claim to territory (Mexico repudiates)
►Texas offers free land grants to U.S. settlers
►Annexation to U.S. refused by Jackson
 
Texas Revolution
 
Trails of Trade and Settlement
►Santa Fe Trail closed to U.S. travelers as a result of Mexico’s war with Texas
►Oregon Trail conduit for heavy stream of settlers to the Oregon country
►Oregon settlers demand an end to joint U.S.-British occupation
 
The Mormon Trek: Westward Flight
►Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints founded by Joseph Smith, 1830
►Mormon church seeks revival of pure aboriginal American Christianity
►Mormons persecuted for unorthodoxy
►Flee New York for Nauvoo, Illinois
►Murder of Joseph Smith 1844
Brigham Young becomes Mormon leader
Mormons move to Great Salt Lake in Utah
 
The Mormons Trek:Mormons in Utah
►1847: State of Deseret established, technically in Mexican territory
►Desert transformed into farmland
►1848: U.S. gets Utah and Mormons at first resist U.S. governance
►1857: Brigham Young accepts post as territorial governor of Utah
 
Western Trails
 
Manifest Destiny and the Mexican-American War
►Widespread call for annexation of newly settled lands
►“Manifest Destiny” a slogan of those believing the U.S. divinely ordained to encompass Mexico and Canada
 
Tyler and Texas
►1841: John Tyler assumes presidency after William Henry Harrison’s death
►Tyler breaks with Whigs
►1844: Tyler negotiates annexation with Texas for re-election campaign issue
►Senate refuses to ratify because of expansion of slavery
►Tyler loses Whig nomination to Henry Clay
►Annexation by joint resolution
 
The Triumph of Polk
and Annexation
►Democrats nominate James K. Polk
►Polk runs on expansionist platform
Annexation of Texas for Southern vote
U.S. jurisdiction of Oregon for Northern vote
►James Birney and Liberty Party take votes away from Clay over the expansion of slavery
►Polk, Congress interpret his election as mandate for expansion
►Texas annexed by joint resolution shortly before Polk inaugurated
 
The Liberty Party
Swings an Election
 
The Election of 1844
 
The Doctrine of Manifest Destiny
►"Manifest Destiny" first used in 1845 by John O’ Sullivan
God wants the U.S., His chosen nation, to become stronger
Americans make new territories free and democratic
Growing American population needs land
►Limits to American expansion undefined
 
Polk and the Oregon Question
►“54’ 40” or fight”
►1846: Polk tells British that joint occupation no longer acceptable
►England prepares for war, proposes division of the area
►Senate approves division of Oregon along 49o north latitude, Treaty of 1846
►U.S. gains ownership of Puget Sound
►Northern expansionists condemned Polk for division
 
Northwest Boundary Dispute
 
War with Mexico: Outbreak
►Texan claim to area between Nueces and Rio Grande Rivers not recognized by Mexico
►After Texas annexation, this causes conflict between U.S. and Mexico
►Polk orders General Zachary Taylor into disputed area
►April 24 1846 Mexicans attack Americans in disputed area
►May 13, 1846: War on Mexico declared
 
War with Mexico: Course
►General Zachary Taylor wins campaign in northern Mexico
►Colonel Stephen Kearney captured New Mexico and joined John C. Frémont in taking California by early 1847
►September, 1847: General Winfield Scott occupies Mexico City
 
Settlement of the Mexican-American War: Terms
►Nicholas Trist, the negotiator with Mexico,  disobeys Polk’s orders to return to Washington
►February, 1848: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Rio Grande becomes southern border
New Mexico, California ceded to U.S.
U.S. pays Mexico $15 million
 
Settlement of the Mexican-American War: Aftermath
►Why the U.S. did not annex all of Mexico
Merk Thesis: racism and anti-colonial heritage
Graebner: U.S. only wanted west coast ports, no need for rest of Mexico
►Mexican War politically contentious
Whigs constantly criticized war effort
Northerners view war as aimed at increasing slavery and Southern power
Wilmont Proviso
►Manifest Destiny ultimately limited by racism and slavery question
 
The Mexican-American War
 
Internal Expansionism
►“Young Americans”  link territorial growth to other material achievements
Technological innovation—e.g. telegraph
Transportation improvements
Growth of trade
Mass immigration
►Discovery of California gold inspires transcontinental projects
►Territorial expansion wanes after 1848, economic, population growth continues
 
The Triumph of the Railroad
►1840s: railroad begins displacing canals
►Rail construction stimulates iron industry
►Railroads stimulate new forms of finance
Bonds
Preferred stock
Government subsidies
 
Railroads, 1850 and 1860
 
The Industrial Revolution Takes Off
►Mass production, the division of labor makes production more efficient
►Factory system emerges
§Gather laborers in one place for supervision
§Cash wages
§“Continuous process" of manufacturing
►Agriculture becomes mechanized
►Northern economy based on interaction of industry, transportation, agriculture
 
 
 
Mass Immigration Begins
►1840-1860: 4 million Irish, Germans immigrate to U.S.
►Most come for higher wages
►Immigrants fill low-paying jobs in port cities
►Low immigrant wages contribute to slums
►Urban reform movement results from poverty of slums
►Working class experience unifies different ethnicities into an American working class
 
Immigration to the United States, 1820–1860
 
The New Working Class
►1840s: Factory labor begins shifting from women, children to men
►Immigrants dominate new working class
►Employers less involved with laborers
►Post-1837 employers demand more work for less pay
►Unions organized to defend worker rights
 
The New Working Class
►Wage laborers resent discipline, continuous nature of factory work
►Workers cling to traditional work habits
►Adjustment to new work style was painful and took time
 
The Costs of Expansion
►Working class poses problem for ideals
§Working for wages was assumed to be the first step toward becoming one’s own master
§New class of permanent wage-earners conflicted with old ideal
►Economic expansion creates conflicts between classes
►Territorial expansion creates conflicts between sections
►Both sets of conflicts uncontrollable