The Storm Gathers
•Secession does not necessarily mean war
•One last attempt to reconcile North and South
•Federal response to secession debated
The Deep South Secedes
•December 20,1860: South Carolina secedes
•February, 1861: Confederate States of America formed
–Included South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas
The Deep South Secedes
•Government headed by moderates
•Confederate constitution resembles U.S.
•Aim to restore pre-Republican Party Union
•Southerners hope to attract Northern states into Confederacy
The Failure of Compromise
•Crittenden Plan: Extend the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific
•Lincoln rejects compromise
–Does not think it will end secession
–Misperceived depth of support for secession and thought compromise would demoralize union sympathizers
–Viewed as repudiation of majority rule 
And the War Came
•North seeks action to preserve Union
•April 13, 1861: Fort Sumter, S.C, falls
•April, 15: Lincoln calls out Northern state militias to suppress Southern insurrection
•April–May: Upper South secedes
•Border states: Slave states remain in Union
•War defined as effort to preserve Union
Adjusting to Total War
•North must win by destroying will to resist
•Total War: a test of societies, economies, political systems as well as armies
Resources of the Union and the Confederacy, 1861
Prospects, Plans, and Expectations
•South adopts defensive strategy: North must fight in unfamiliar, hostile terrain
•Lincoln adopts two-front strategy
–Capture Confederate capital, Richmond, Va.
–Seize control of the Mississippi River
–Deploy navy to blockade Southern ports
Overview of Civil War Strategy
Mobilizing the Home Fronts
•1862: North and South begin conscription
•Northern mobilization
–Finance war through taxes, bonds, paper money
–Private industry supplies Union armies well
•Confederate mobilization
–Government arsenals supply Confederate armies
–Efforts to finance lead to runaway inflation
–Transportation system inadequate
Political Leadership: Northern Success and Southern Failure
•Lincoln expands wartime powers
–Declares martial law
–Imprisons 10,000 "subversives" without trial
–Briefly closed down a few newspapers
•Jefferson Davis
–Concerned mainly with military duties
–Neglects civilian morale, economy
–Lacks influence with state governments
Early Campaigns and Battles
•Northern achievements by 1862
–Total naval supremacy
–Confederate troops cleared from West Virginia, Kentucky, much of Tennessee
–New Orleans captured
•Confederate achievements by 1862
–Stall campaign for the Mississippi at Shiloh
–Defend Richmond from capture
Civil War, 1861-1862
The Diplomatic Struggle
–Belligerent rights extended to Confederacy
–Conditions: Recognition of independence on proof that South can win independence
•France: Confederacy not recognized unless England does so first
•"King Cotton" has little influence on foreign policy of other nations
Fight to the Finish
•North adopts radical measures to win
•1863: War turns against South
•Southern resistance continues
The Coming of Emancipation
•September 22, 1862: Antietam prompts preliminary Emancipation Proclamation
–Surrender in 100 days or lose slaves
•January 1, 1863: Proclamation put into effect for areas still in rebellion
•African Americans flee to Union lines
•Confederacy loses thousands of laborers
African Americans and
the War
•200,000 African American Union troops
•Many others labor in Northern war effort
•Lincoln pushes further for black rights
–Organizes governments in conquered Southern states that abolish slavery
–Maryland, Missouri abolish slavery
–January 31, 1865: 13th Amendment passed
The Tide Turns
•May, 1863: War-weariness
–New York riots against conscription
–Anti-war activist like Congressman Clement Vallandigham arrested
–Grant bogged down at Vicksburg
–Union defeated at Chancellorsville
–Democrats “Copperheads” attack Lincoln
•July, 1863
–Confederate invasion of North fails at Battle of Gettysburg
–Vicksburg falls, North holds the Mississippi
Last Stages of the Conflict
•March 9, 1864: Grant made supreme commander of Union armies
•Union invades the South on all fronts
–William Sherman marches through Georgia
–Grant lays siege to Richmond, Petersburg
•September, 2: Sherman takes Atlanta
•November, 8: Lincoln re-elected
Election of 1864

Candidate   Party  Popular Vote  Electoral Vote

Lincoln  Republican  2,213,655  212

McClellan  Democratic  1,805,237    21

*Out of a total of 233 electoral votes. The eleven secessionist states—
Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North
Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia—did not vote.

Civil War, 1863-1865
Last Stages of the Conflict
•Sherman’s March to the sea through Georgia
•Scorched earth policy
•April 2, 1865: Grant takes Richmond
•April 9, 1865: Lee surrenders
•April 14, 1865: Lincoln assassinated
•April 18, 1865: Last major Confederate force under Joseph Johnston surrender
Effects of the War
•618,000 troops dead
•Bereft women seek non-domestic roles
•Four million African Americans free, not equal
•Industrial workers face wartime inflation
Casualties of War
Effects of the War
•Federal government predominant over states
•Federal government takes activist role in the economy
–Higher tariffs, free land, national banking system
An Organizational Revolution
•Modern bureaucratic state emerges
•Individualism gives way to organized, cooperative activity
•Catalyst for transformation of American society in the late nineteenth century