#76   Isolation and Infamy  ch 22

Last Update: November 14, 2015

OK PASS Objectives

America was safe behind its ocean walls.  Americans prefered to ignore the European brawl and return to isolationism.

WW I Debt:   European allies owed the U.S. $. they were reluctant to pay

Great Depression: kept most Americans focused on domestic issues

Neutrality Act of 1939

 

Content Standard 5: The student will analyze the major causes, events, and effects of United States’ involvement in World War II.
1. Examine changes in American society and government policy as the nation prepared for and entered World War II.

B. Describe the roles of appeasement and isolationism in the United States’ reluctance to involve itself in world conflicts during 1937-1941 (e.g., the Lend-Lease Act, and the Neutrality Acts).

 

Lend-Lease Act

US sent 50 billion worth of military supplies to 38 countries

Atlantic Charter

B. Describe the roles of appeasement and isolationism in the United States’ reluctance to involve itself in world conflicts during 1937-1941 (e.g., the Lend-Lease Act, and the Neutrality Acts).

Axis Powers   (Germany, Italy, and Japan)

B. Describe the roles of appeasement and isolationism in the United States’ reluctance to involve itself in world conflicts during 1937-1941 (e.g., the Lend-Lease Act, and the Neutrality Acts).
   
Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941

Content Standard 5: The student will analyze the major causes, events, and effects of United States’ involvement in World War II.

2. Describe events affecting the outcome of World War II.
A. Identify major battles, military turning points, and key strategic decisions in both the European and Pacific Theaters of operation (e.g., Pearl Harbor;

American code and cipher experts had broken the secret Japanese code and knew by the communiqués to the Japanese embassy in Washington that an attack was coming.
    1.  Attack happened just before 8:00am
    2.  Attack lasted for more than two hours
    3.  Navy lost 18 ships, 170 planes, 3,500 soldiers
    4.  December 8th U.S. declares war on Japan

Pearl Harbor CONSPIRACIES

2. Describe events affecting the outcome of World War II.
A. Identify major battles, military turning points, and key strategic decisions in both the European and Pacific Theaters of operation (e.g., Pearl Harbor;

Mobilization for War

The unemployment problem ended in the United States with the beginning of World War II, when stepped up wartime production created millions of new jobs and the draft pulled young men out to fight.

Rosie the Riveter  Women who took the job of working in the manufacturing plant

War songs  Don't Sit Under the Apple Tree with Anyone Else but Me, God Bless America, White Christmas

YouTube WWII songs medly 1 2 3

Content Standard 5: The student will analyze the major causes, events, and effects of United States’ involvement in World War II.

 

C. Evaluate the impact of preparation and mobilization for war

role of women in the workforce and armed services;

 

 

 

Internment of Japanese Americans

In 1942 the War Department demanded that all enemy nationals be removed from war zones on the West Coast.

The most controversial part of the order included American born children and youth who had dual U.S. and Japanese citizenship.

In addition to the Japanese, thousands of civilian Germans and Italians were interned; some with their families, some taken from their families. They were given hearing, but had no representation of their own. These internees were picked up by the FBI based on records compiled prior to and at the beginning of the War.

C. Evaluate the impact of preparation and mobilization for war, including the internment policies and their effects (e.g., internment of minority Americans, such as, Japanese, Germans, and Italians; Korematsu v. United States; rationing; role of women in the workforce and armed services; and discrimination and segregation at home and in the armed forces).

Korematsu v. United States   was a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II. Watch video

In a 6-3 decision, the Court sided with the government, ruling that the exclusion order was constitutional. The opinion, written by Supreme Court justice Hugo Black, held that the need to protect against espionage outweighed Fred Korematsu's individual rights, and the rights of Americans of Japanese descent. (The Court limited its decision to the validity of the exclusion orders, adding, "The provisions of other orders requiring persons of Japanese ancestry to report to assembly centers and providing for the detention of such persons in assembly and relocation centers were separate, and their validity is not in issue in this proceeding.")

The decision in Korematsu v. United States has been very controversial. Korematsu's conviction for evading internment was overturned on November 10, 1983, after Korematsu challenged the earlier decision by filing for a writ of coram nobis. In a ruling by Judge Marilyn Hall Patel, the United States District Court for the Northern District of California granted the writ (that is, it voided Korematsu's original conviction) because in Korematsu's original case, the government had knowingly submitted false information to the Supreme Court that had a material effect on the Supreme Court's decision.

The Korematsu decision has not been explicitly overturned, but remains significant both for being the first instance of the Supreme Court applying the strict scrutiny standard to racial discrimination by the government and for being one of only a handful of cases in which the Court held that the government met that standard.

 

C. Evaluate the impact of preparation and mobilization for war, including the internment policies and their effects (e.g., internment of minority Americans, such as, Japanese, Germans, and Italians; Korematsu v. United States; rationing; role of women in the workforce and armed services; and discrimination and segregation at home and in the armed forces).
Rationing 

At the beginning of World War II, a rationing system was begun in the United States. Tires were the first item to be rationed in January 1942 because supplies of natural rubber were interrupted. Soon afterward, passenger automobiles, typewriters, sugar, gasoline, bicycles, footwear, fuel oil, Silk, Nylon, coffee, stoves, shoes, meat, lard, shortening and oils, cheese, butter, margarine, processed foods (canned, bottled and frozen), dried fruits, canned milk, firewood and coal, jams, jellies and fruit butter, were rationed by November 1943.

C. Evaluate the impact of preparation and mobilization for war, including the internment policies and their effects (e.g., internment of minority Americans, such as, Japanese, Germans, and Italians; Korematsu v. United States; rationing;
 

 

Discrimination and segregation at home and in the armed forces.

In 1943 Roosevelt greatly strengthened FEPC (Fair Employment Practices Committee) with a new executive order, #9346. It required that all government contracts have a non-discrimination clause. FEPC was the most significant breakthrough ever for Blacks and women on the job front. During the war the federal government operated airfield, shipyards, supply centers, ammunition plants and other facilities that employed millions. FEPC rules applied and guaranteed equality of employment rights.  Blacks struggled for equal place on the battlefield as racism prevailed in the armed forces

C. Evaluate the impact of preparation and mobilization for war, including the internment policies and their effects (e.g., internment of minority Americans, such as, Japanese, Germans, and Italians; Korematsu v. United States; rationing; role of women in the workforce and armed services; and discrimination and segregation at home and in the armed forces).

Photo Credits:

Pearl Harbor pics: Pearl Harbor movie- Touchtone Pictures

Lend - Lease: http://www.glencoe.com/qe/images/b96/q2581/tak11_obj1_lendl.gif