U.S. History 1st Semester Exam Review Sheet         Teacher : Mr Cap           Last Update: April 13, 2010

Portugal- European nation that first discovered a sea route to Asia

Aztecs- a highly civilized Indian culture in Mexico

Marco Polo - journeyed to China during the rule of Kublai Khan

Christopher Columbus - first modern European to reach the West Indies

Newfoundland - discovered by John Cabotfor the English

Amerigo Vespucci - realized the discovery of a new continent

Ferdinand Magellan - his crew was the first to circumnavigate the globe

Philip II - powerful Spanish ruler

English - ruler Elizabeth I who approved the colonization of North America

Jamestown-captain John Smith whose discipline helped to survive

Francis Drake  - attacked the ships of Spain

Jamestown-The first permanent English settlement in America

John Paul Jones- said " I have not yet begun to fight

bartered- trading or exchanging goods

Mercantilism- colonies exist for the good of the mother country

St. Lawrence RiverCartier discovered this river

New France- Champlain became the "Father" of this region

Marquette and Jolet- first French explorers of the Mississippi 1673

George Washington- his nickname was ole fox

Mississippi River - la Salle was the first to sail down this river and claim for King of France

Quartering Act-  allowed British troops to be housed in public buildings and even homes.

Intolerable Acts- aka Coercive Acts-

manufacturing at home- domestic system

Battle of Yorktown-final battle of the Revolutionary War. Lost by 
                                                        British general Cornwallis

Boston- Boston Port Bill closed the port of this city

Quebec Act- canceled the American western land claims

Gibbons v. Ogden- court case said only Congress can regulate commerce

McCulloch v. Maryland- bank teller refused to pay a state tax in this court case

Marbury vs Madison- court case where the appointed judge couldn't get his job

steamship - Robert Fulton invented this water transportation vessel

Whiskey Rebellion- this rebellion took place during the Washington administration

Lewis & Clarkexplored the Louisiana Purchase for President Jefferson

New Orleans- French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte closed this port of New Orleans

Barbary Pirates- Stephen Decatur fought these at Tripoli

Mandan- Lewis and Clark spent the winter with these people

Sacagawea- she helped Lewis and Clark expedition

Louisiana Purchase- Greatest real estate deal in American history

sectionalism- term is the dividing of the country because of differing issues

American System- renewal of the National Bank, internal improvements,  Protective Tariff.

George Washington-commander and chief of the Continental army who 
                                    captured the Hessians at Trenton

Jackson highlights- supports Nationalism, supports the Union, supports Indian Removal

What is the picture to the left called?

  Who invented it?

  What was the code used to communicate?


New Political Tactics-     spoils system,   machines, nominating convention

Revivals - second great awakening sponsored these during the 1st 1/2 of the 19th century

Manifest Destiny- the idea that the United States was to expand from "sea to shining sea"

western expansionists- "Fifty-four forty of fight" was the battle cry of this group

Bear Flag Revolt - California's revolution was known as this

Gadsden Purchase- area of land was bought from Mexico for 10 million to ensure
                                                 a direct route for the Southern Railroad

Compromise of 1850- California admitted as a Free state, Organize rest of Mexican Cession,
                                   Texas cede land for 10 million, Slave trade prohibited  in D.C.

slavery.  -obviously wrong, Discouraged immigration and skilled labor, Slavery caused the South
               to develop more distinct and defined social classes, Slavery was costly for plantation owners.

Civil War   all names for this war Mr. Lincoln's War, Jeff Davis's War, War of Rebellion,
                  War for Southern Independence.

causes of the Civil War- South Carolina secedes from the Union, Lincoln raises an army to preserve
                                         the Union, South rises to preserve states' rights, South preserve economic lifestyle

Gettysburg- this battle became the the turning point of the War

A.E. Burnsides- Union General was more famous for his bushy side burns than his generalship

South's problems after the Civil War- devastated countryside, plight of the freedman,

13th amendment- freed the slaves  1865

14th amendment- gave freed slaves civil rights  1868

15th amendment- freedmen the right to vote   1870

struggle between Lincoln and the Radicals over Reconstruction
                Had the southern states actually seceded from the Union?,
                 Whose jurisdiction was reconstruction?.

Andrew Carnegie- best remembered for  his philanthropic endeavors Carnegie Hall

J .P. Morgan- Finance and banking

Civil War inventions - sole-sewing machine,  packaged cereals, canned food

entrepreneur- a person who takes business risks in the hopes of someday making a profit

Capitalism- an economic system in which individuals are free to follow their economic pursuits as they see fit

Alexander Bell - patented the telephone

Gross National Product- total output of goods and services within a country.

Cornelius Vanderbilt     RR tycoon in New York and Pennsylvania

Robber Barons- 19th century businessmen and bankers who dominated their respective industries
                             and amassed huge personal fortunes.        
John D. Rockefeller -developed Standard Oil Co